Cold-Water Shock- Hypothermia – Carbon-Monoxide Poisoning – Pleasure Craft

Cold water shock

Occurs as a result of sudden immersion in cold water.Cold shock response is characterized by an uncontrollable gasp for air, followed by a prolonged period of hyperventilation; increased heart rate; and blood pressure.This rapid breathing quickly translates to rapid drowning if the victim is submerged under water. The cold shock response can also cause a heart attack as cold blood from the extremities reaches the heart.Treatment consists of try to control your breathing and get out of the water as soon as possible;get to dry shelter :prevent further decrease in body temperature and warm the person gradually by replacing wet with dry clothing, wrapping in blankets,  covering with dry covers, preventing heat loss at head & neck area and/or applying warm dry objects (40-45c) ; warm liquids but no alcohol or hot stimulants.

  • it can occur water that is 15 degrees Celsius and blow
  • it occurs in the first minute of exposure
  • wearing a lifejacket is critical – keeps you afloat with your nose and mouth above the water so you can


is a drop in body temperature below normal levels that most frequently develops from exposure to abnormally low temperatures such as: immersion in cold water, exposure to cool air in water-soaked clothing, or prolonged exposure to low environmental temperatures.

The signs and symptoms of a person exposed to hypothermia as it progress are:

  • shivering and slurred speech, conscious but withdrawn at early stage
  • slow and weak pulse, slow respirations, lacks coordination, irrational, confused and sleepy at intermediate stage
  • weak ,irregular or absent pulse or respirations, loss of consciousness at final stage

The actions you should take for a person suffering from hypothermia are as follows:

  • remove the person from the source of cold exposure
  • provide dry shelter
  • prevent further decrease in body temperature and warm the person gradually by replacing wet with dry clothing, wrapping person in blankets, covering with dry covers, preventing heat loss at head & neck area and/or applying warm dry objects (40-45c)
  • if asked for, offer warm liquids but no alcohol or hot stimulants
  • do not rub or massage the surface of the person’s body or extremities
  • if necessary, use and exhibits signals to indicate distress and need of -Collision Regulations , Annex IV

Carbon-Monoxide Poisoning

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a deadly gas you can’t see, smell or taste. CO can come from anything that burns a carbon-based fuel (gasoline, propane, charcoal, oil, etc.) CO comes in through your lungs and cuts off the oxygen supply to your body, causing death in minutes. Symptoms include headaches, nausea and fatigue. Treatment consists of removing the person from the contaminated area to a source of fresh air & seek medical attention. Oxygen may need to be administered and if the person is not breathing – CPR will be required. One of the dangers, is that the symptoms are similar to other conditions, like seasickness.

Heat Stroke – Heat stroke is life-threatening. The victim’s temperature control system, which produces sweating to cool the body, stops working. The body temperature can rise so high that brain damage and death may result if the body is not cooled quickly. Signals include hot, red and dry skin; changes in consciousness; rapid, weak pulse; and rapid, shallow breathing. Body temperature can be very high—sometimes as high as 105 degrees.

Move the person to a cooler place. Quickly cool the body. Immerse victim in a cool water, or wrap wet sheets around the body and fan it. Watch for signals of breathing problems. Keep the person lying down and continue to cool the body any way you can. If the victim refuses water or is vomiting or there are changes in the level of consciousness, do not give anything to eat or drink.

Heat Exhaustion – Heat exhaustion typically occurs when people exercise heavily or work in a hot, humid place where body fluids are lost through heavy sweating. Blood flow to the skin increases, causing blood flow to decrease to the vital organs. This results in a form of mild shock. If not treated, the victim may suffer heat stroke. Signals of heat exhaustion include cool, moist, pale flushed or red skin; heavy sweating; headache; nausea or vomiting; dizziness; and exhaustion. Body temperature will be near normal.

Get the person to a cooler place and have him or her rest in a comfortable position. If the person is fully awake and alert, give half a glass of cool water every 15 minutes. Do not let him or her drink too quickly. Do not give liquids that contain alcohol or caffeine.

Remove or loosen tight clothing and apply cool, wet cloths, such as towels or sheets


Seasickness is the reaction of your body’s inner ear balance system to the unfamiliar motion of the boat. The movement of the boat causes stress on the balancing portion of the brain.

Symptoms can included the following:

  • stomach ache
  • become pale, start to sweat
  • become light-headed
  • sometimes depression
  • nausea

Other symptoms:

  • hyperventilation
  • panic, confusion
  • excessive yawning
  • headache
  • lethargy


  • anti-motion sickness medication
  • supply fresh air
  • eliminate visual conflict (stare at the horizon)